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Técnicas fotográficas

FOTOGRAFIA CIENTÍFICA E ARTÍSTICA E FOTOMICROGRAFIA

O ensino de Técnica Fotográfica em 1890 na Escola Lette-Verein foi seguido depois pelo de Fotografia Científica, Técnica em Radiologia, Fotomicrografia e Metalografia.

The launching of the Photography Techniques course in 1890 at the Lette-Verein School, with a two-year duration, was a bold project for the time and marked the beginning of a new field of work for women. The starting point was the photograph’s artistic aspect, which was considered more appropriate for women, but the field soon expanded to education in Scientific Photography (Wissenschaftliche Photographie) and in Professional Photography (Fachphotographie).

Scientific Photography could lead to countless roads of professional work, including as assistant in institutes of Medicine, Veterinary or in laboratories. These courses could also include training in Botany and Biology. In 1895, a completely new subject was offered to the photographers, that of Radiology Techniques. The technical assistant at an x ray laboratory would need to know how to take, prepare and develop x rays, produce a macroscopic photograph, make photographic copies and prepare images to be presented in class. The photographer also had to study Chemistry, Physics, Anatomy, Physiology and Radiology in order to pass the photographer state exam.

As of 1905, the Photography course included training in Photomicrography and Metallography. Photomicrography was taught together with other subjects such as Anatomy, Electricity, Parasitology, Histology, Serology, Slicing and Staining Techniques and Microscopy Techniques. At the Lette-Verein, one could only work correctly as a photomicrographer if you had full scientific knowledge of what was being portrayed. Photomicrography was included in the course with the purpose of using it in institutes of Medicine and Natural Sciences or in industry. The introduction of this course changed its organization, which then became divided in three parts; 1- General and Scientific Photography; 2- Reproduction and Touch Ups; and 3- Photomechanical Processes. There were also drawing lessons.

Lilly Ebstein Lowenstein (1897-1966) viveu entre a ciência e a arte, desenhando e realizando fotografias nos campos da medicina e da zoologia. Em seu trabalho, Lilly conjugava o conhecimento técnico da fotografia e do desenho, o estudo das ciências e um notável talento estético. Nascida na Alemanha, ela estudou na Escola Lette-Verein em Berlim entre 1911 e 1914. Em 1925 imigrou com o marido e dois filhos para São Paulo. Em 1926, tornou-se desenhista e fotomicrógrafa da Seção de Desenho e Fotografia na Faculdade de Medicina (USP, a partir de 1934), da qual seria chefe por trinta anos a partir 1932. Entre 1930 e 1935 Lilly foi colaboradora do Instituto Biológico de Defesa Agrícola e Animal, principalmente da sua Seção de Ornitopatologia. Uma vida com arte dedicada à pesquisa e difusão da ciência.