histórias
relacionadas
  • Alfonso Bovero
  • A formação em Berlim
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O desenho científico

TÉCNICAS E APLICAÇÕES

O desenho era ferramenta fundamental no trabalho das instituições científicas para consolidar um novo conhecimento ou técnica; a ilustração contém informações que o texto por si só não poderia passar e vice-versa.

Lilly’s work varied and demanded the mastery of different techniques with different uses. There are illustrations where the detail and the preciseness of the scientific information are essential and it is critical to identify visually in the printed drawing, the characteristics of, for instance, the pathology. Others are more schematic, such as the text under the diagram of how a medical team is positioned around a patient during surgery; the correct way of holding instruments and of operating.

In the field of photomicrography, there are microscopic photographs and illustrations made from images seen under the microscope. The drawings of cells examined under the microscope demanded a complex translation, in a different scale, from the image seen to the one drawn, with prior knowledge of the elements to be highlighted for a specific study. Mastering photomicrography also demanded thorough technical knowledge of lenses, and development and magnification processes of images in different formats and supports. In the field of photography, there are photos that were hand-colored.

The scientific, medical and biological drawing or illustration by Lilly Ebstein Lowenstein was a crucial tool for the work at the School of Medicine and other scientific institutions in the country and abroad. It was not an ornamental or secondary drawing, but rather the essential element of the research, the study, the documental and didactic record, the classes, the scientific publication and the formalization of procedures. The text and its indications were not enough to consolidate and disseminate new knowledge or techniques. The illustration contains information, which the text alone cannot convey and vice-versa.

The artistic quality of the drawings was at the service of scientific information and its purpose was to make it more informative and didactic. Thus, the more accurate the artistic quality, the better quality of scientific information, since the purpose was clarity and precision of information.

Lilly Ebstein Lowenstein (1897-1966) viveu entre a ciência e a arte, desenhando e realizando fotografias nos campos da medicina e da zoologia. Em seu trabalho, Lilly conjugava o conhecimento técnico da fotografia e do desenho, o estudo das ciências e um notável talento estético. Nascida na Alemanha, ela estudou na Escola Lette-Verein em Berlim entre 1911 e 1914. Em 1925 imigrou com o marido e dois filhos para São Paulo. Em 1926, tornou-se desenhista e fotomicrógrafa da Seção de Desenho e Fotografia na Faculdade de Medicina (USP, a partir de 1934), da qual seria chefe por trinta anos a partir 1932. Entre 1930 e 1935 Lilly foi colaboradora do Instituto Biológico de Defesa Agrícola e Animal, principalmente da sua Seção de Ornitopatologia. Uma vida com arte dedicada à pesquisa e difusão da ciência.